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|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||5 119|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||17.5|
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In the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, many large-scale steel suspension bridges were constructed over major waterways. Also in the late 19th century, engineers began to experiment with concrete reinforced with steel bars for added strength. More recently, reinforced concrete has been combined with steel girders, which are solid beams that extend across a span. When the Interstate Highway System in the United States and similar road systems in other countries were constructed in the mid- to late 20th century, the steel-and-concrete girder bridge was one of the most commonly used bridge designs. The last three decades of the 20th century saw a period of large-scale bridge building in Europe and Asia. Current research focuses on using computers, instrumentation, automation, and new materials to improve bridge design, construction, and maintenance.
II TYPES OF BRIDGES
Bridge designs differ in the way they support loads. These loads include the weight of the bridges themselves, the weight of the material used to build the bridges, and the weight and stresses of the vehicles crossing them. There are basically eight common bridge designs: beam, cantilever, arch, truss, suspension, cable-stayed, movable, and floating bridges. Combination bridges may incorporate two or more of the above designs into a bridge. Each design differs in appearance, construction methods and materials used, and overall expense. Some designs are better for long spans. Beam bridges typically span the shortest distances, while suspension and cable-stayed bridges span the greatest distances.
A Beam Bridges
Beam bridges represent the simplest of all bridge designs. A beam bridge consists of a rigid horizontal member called a beam that is supported at both ends, either by a natural land structure, such as the banks of a river, or by vertical posts called piers. Beam bridges are the most commonly used bridges in highway construction. Single-piece, rolled-steel beams can support spans of 15 to 30 m (50 to 100 ft). Heavier, reinforced beams and girders are used for longer spans.
B Cantilever Bridges
Cantilever bridges are a more complex version of the beam-bridge design. In a cantilever design, a tower is built on each side of the obstacle to be crossed, and the bridge is built outward, or cantilevered, from each tower. The towers support the entire load of the cantilevered arms. The arms are spaced so that a small suspended span can be inserted between them.
Zdroje: Microsoft Encarta 2003