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Bridges
Dátum pridania: 05.10.2003 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: codefix
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 5 119
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 17.5
Priemerná známka: 2.95 Rýchle čítanie: 29m 10s
Pomalé čítanie: 43m 45s
 

Often, new transportation routes are part of government programs to promote regional economic development.
In the United States, state and local transportation agencies determine where new bridges are needed and pay a small portion of the cost. The federal government usually pays for most of the construction expense, using money generated from taxes. Bridges funded by tax dollars are used free of charge. The few bridges for which a toll is charged to drivers for use are funded through the sale of bonds to raise money for construction. The money collected from the toll is used to pay back the bonds. The use of tolls and borrowing to finance bridge construction was more widespread in the past than it is today.
A Design Selection
Engineers must consider several factors when designing a bridge. They consider the distance to be crossed and the feature, such as a river, bay, or canyon, to be crossed. Engineers must anticipate the type of traffic and the amount of load the bridge will have to carry and the minimum span and height required for traffic traveling across and under the bridge. Temperature, environmental conditions, and the physical nature of the building site (such as the geometry of the approaches, the strength of the ground, and the depth to firm bedrock) also determine the best bridge design for a particular situation. Once engineers have the data they need in order to design a bridge, they create a work plan for constructing it. Factors to be considered include availability of materials, equipment, and trained labor; availability of workshop facilities; and local transportation to the site. These factors, in combination with the funding and time available for bridge design and construction, are the major requirements and constraints on design decisions for a particular site.
B Design Decisions
There are four basic categories of design decisions: the type of bridge, the materials of which it will be made, the type of foundations that will support the structure, and the construction method to be used. Typically, several feasible choices exist in each category, and each option is evaluated in terms of convenience, appearance, endurance, and cost. Bridges must be convenient to build, use, and maintain. Appearance is important in gaining public approval, which is particularly critical for taxpayer-funded projects. Bridges must be designed to endure, as most structures can be expected to provide service for at least 50 to 100 years. Durability of materials and maintenance requirements are important considerations, as the true cost of a bridge is not simply the initial construction expense but the total cost of constructing and maintaining the structure throughout its service life.
 
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Zdroje: Microsoft Encarta 2003
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