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Conditionals and Time Clauses

Conditional – podmiňovací způsob
Time clauses – souvětí časové

Zero conditional sentences refer to “all time”, not just the present or future. They express a situation that is always true. Conditional sentence with 2 present tenses.
If means when or whenever (kdykoli).
- If you heat ice, it melts.
- If you boil water, it evaporates.
- If I read too much, I get a headache.
- If you drop an egg, it breaks.

FIRST CONDITIONAL: If + Present Simple + will
First conditional sentences express real possibilities. Notice that we do not usually use will in the if clause.
- If I see a nice jumper in the shops, I will buy it. - What will you do if you don’t have enough money?
- When I come home, I will have a coffee.
- You won’t pass the exams if you don’t revise.

SECOND CONDITIONAL: If + Past Simple + would
Second conditional sentences express unreal or improbable situations. We use past tense forms to show “unreality” and distance from the present.
- What would you do if you saw a ghost?
- If I were Prime Minister, I´d increase income tax.
- If you needed help, whom would you ask?
- If my mother was still alive, she’d be very proud. (but she’s dead)
- I could buy some new clothes if I had some money.
- If I saved a little every week, I might be able to save up for a car.

Both 1st and 2nd conditional sentences refer to the present and future. The difference is probability (not time). - If I win the tennis match, I will … (I think it is possible) – KDYZ….
- If I won 5 million, I´ d … (but I don’t think it will happen) – KDYBYCH …

We don’t usually use when, as soon as, before, until, after by will in the clauses. We use present tens even through the time reference is future.
- I will give you a ring… - before I go.
- as soon as I get back.
- when I know the time of the train.
We can use Present Perfect if it is important to show that the action in the time clause is finished.
- When I have read the book, I will lend it to you.

She’d look better with shorter hair. (= If she cut her hair, she’d look better.)
To express preference:
- I´d love a cup of tea.
- Where would you like to sit?

To express a request:
- Would you open the door for me?
- Would you mind lending me a hand?.

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