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Piatok, 12. augusta 2022
Dátum pridania: 28.08.2003 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: Stromek
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 769
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 6.3
Priemerná známka: 2.98 Rýchle čítanie: 10m 30s
Pomalé čítanie: 15m 45s

Most physicians advocate the surgical removal of any residual embryonic or placental tissue in order to avoid possible irritation or infection of the uterine lining.

Induced abortion is the deliberate termination of pregnancy by removal of the fetus from the womb. It is currently performed by any of four standard procedures, according to the period of gestation. Suction, or vacuum aspiration, is used in the first trimester (up to 12 weeks). In this procedure, which normally takes five to ten minutes on an outpatient basis, the cervix (neck of the uterus) is opened gradually with a series of dilators and the uterine contents are withdrawn by means of a small flexible tube called a cannula, which is connected to a vacuum pump. To ensure that no fragments of tissue remain, a spoon-tipped metal instrument called a curette may then be used to scrape the uterine lining. Introduced in China in 1958, vacuum aspiration soon replaced the traditional early-abortion procedure, dilation and curettage (D&C), in which the curette is used to dislodge the fetus. Pregnancies in the earlier part of the second trimester may be terminated by a special suction curettage, sometimes combined with forceps, in a procedure called dilation and evacuation (D&E). The patient may remain in the hospital overnight and may experience a menstrual type of bleeding and discomfort. After the 15th week of gestation, saline infusion is commonly used. In this technique, a small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the uterus by means of a fine tube or hypodermic needle through the abdominal wall and is slowly replaced with a strong (about 20 percent) salt solution. This induces uterine contractions in about 24 to 48 hours. The fetus is then usually quickly expelled and the patient leaves the hospital about a day later. Late abortions are accomplished by hysterotomy; this is a major surgical procedure, similar to a cesarean section but requiring a much smaller incision lower in the abdomen. An alternative to these procedures is RU-486, a pill that blocks the hormone progesterone and is effective in the first 50 days of gestation. RU-486 was developed in France and approved for sale there in 1988. As of early 1993 it remained untested in the United States.
When performed under proper clinical conditions, first-trimester abortions are relatively simple and safe. The likelihood of complications increases with length of gestation and includes infection, cervical injury, perforation of the uterus and hemorrhage. Recent data, however, show that even late abortions place the patient at less risk than full-term delivery.

Regulation of Abortion
The practice of abortion was widespread in ancient times as a method of birth control.
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