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Pondelok, 1. júna 2020
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells compared
Dátum pridania: 27.12.2001 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: kris_d
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 693
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 2.4
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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

In this essay I will describe the structure of a prokaryotic cell and contrast it with the structure of an eukaryotic one.
The prokaryotic cell is quite simply built, and therefore I would like not only to mention its parts - called organelles - but also to discuss some of their general functions. I would start with the major property: size. Prokaryotes are very small - 0.3 µm (Mycoplasma) up to 10 µm (Spirochete). Bigger, but still not visible for the human eye, are most eukaryotes: 5 µm (animal cell) up to 100 µm (euglena). And I say most, because there are some exceptions, like the eukaryotic egg (yolk) cell, which complained with any other cell looks absolutely huge. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are covered with permeable cell wall that protects the cell and maintains its shape; animal cells, which are eukaryotes, lack it, and that is why they are spherically shaped. Under the cell wall there is a semipermeable plasma membrane (also called cell membrane) with bilayer phospholipids, used for protection, communication between cells and regulation of passing materials. The gel-like cytoplasm is the interior of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but there is a difference in organelles placed in it. Let’s start with the most common organelle, the nucleus. Actually, by prokaryotes this is called nucleoid, because it has only one, circularly - shaped chromosome of DNA or RNA and is also not protected by a membrane. The one that is protected, that is the eukaryotes’ “true” nucleus - a more complex a structure, covered with membrane (-nuclear envelope with pores). Inside there are several linear chromosomes (DNA) and a small organelle, the nucleolus. Ribosomes, sometimes creating groups called polysomes or polyribosomes, contain RNA and also proteins (which they produce, as well). They are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, exactly like flagella, “instruments” used for cell movement.
Eukaryotic cell does possess more organelles that the simple prokaryotic cell does. For example, flagella are not the only movement organelles. There is a whole cytoskeleton – microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments together in one structure. Mitochondria with their two membranes (inner and outer) provide cellular chemical energy for further cellular activities (respiration, etc.) and generate high – energy compounds, such as ATP.
 
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