Ďaľšie referáty z kategórie
Maglev Train (Magnetic Levitation Train)
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||2.3|
|Priemerná známka:||2.97||Rýchle čítanie:||3m 50s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||5m 45s|
Because magnetic levitation trains do not touch the guideway, maglev systems overcome the principal limitation of wheeled trains-the high cost of maintaining precise alignment of the tracks to avoid excessive vibration and rail deterioration at high speeds. Maglevs can provide sustained speeds greater than 500 km/h (300 mph), limited only by the cost of power to overcome wind resistance. The fact that maglevs do not touch the guideway also has other advantages: faster acceleration and braking; greater climbing capability; enhanced operation in heavy rain, snow, and ice; and reduced noise. Maglev systems are also energy-efficient on routes of several hundred kilometres' length, they use about half as much energy per passenger as a typical commercial aircraft. Like other electrical transport systems, they also reduce the use of oil, and pollute the air less than aircraft, diesel locomotives, and cars.
Current plans for high-speed maglev systems include a 283-km (175-mi) route from Berlin to Hamburg, which has been approved by the German parliament; commercial operations are scheduled to begin by 2005. In Japan, a 43-km (27-mi) maglev test track is under construction in Yamanashi Prefecture, about 100 km (60 mi) west of Tokyo. When tests on the latest maglev vehicle have been completed, the test track is planned to be extended to Tokyo and Osaka. This new commercial line will relieve passenger demand on the Shinkansen high-speed train, which currently operates at peak speeds of 225 km/h (140 mph).
In the United States, much of the interest in maglev systems has been initiated at the state level, with plans developed in Florida, California, Nevada, New York, and Pennsylvania. Studies completed by the federal government in 1993 concluded that the potential benefits of a maglev system justified starting a national development programme.