referaty.sk – Všetko čo študent potrebuje
Júlia, Juliana
Nedeľa, 22. mája 2022
Great Britain and London - the capital of England and GB
Dátum pridania: 30.11.2002 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: EB
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 734
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 2.9
Priemerná známka: 2.96 Rýchle čítanie: 4m 50s
Pomalé čítanie: 7m 15s
 

inhabitants
· city of tradition, history, monuments, theatres, parks, museums
· Thames (west → east) – Tower Bridge
· Three main areas of central London:



Tower: fortress Ţ royal palace Ţ prison
1. City:
Tower - fortress → royal palace → prison
Tower Bridge
St. Paul´s Cath.

2. Westminster (Abbey) - Royal Palaces, Government offices, Palace of West = Houses of Parliament. When the parliament has it´s session a flag flies at Big Ben. Buckingham Palace is the residence of British royal family, ceremony of changing the Guard. British Prime minister at 10 Downing st.

3. West End – shops & entertainment, theares, night clubs, cinemas,
China Town (restaurants), Piccadily, Bond st., Reqent´s st., Carnaby st.

4. East End – used to be a slum, Cocney dialect, rebuilt after II. WW. Trafalgar Square – largest square ® statue of adm. Nelson, north – National Gallery

Other – National Prtrait Gallery, Tate G., Victoria & Albert Museum, British Museum, Madam Tussand´s Museum (waksworks)
Parks – St. Jame´s Park, Buckingham Pal. Gardens, Hyde Park, Speaker´s Corner, Regent´s Park, Kensington Garden


History:
- first inhabitants, Celts, came from North Europe before 6th century B. C.
- the Roman occupation started in 1st century AD, (they built towns, roads, centralized administration)
- in 5th century germanic tribes – Angles, Saxons, Jutes (Romans home, Celts in the mountains)
- in 1066 Normans - William the Conqueror → King of England – hegemony of Normans
- in 1215 – Magna Carta – Supremacy of Law over the king – foundation of parlamentary governoment
- 1337 – 1453 – Hundred Years War (England vs. France) followed by wars of Yorks and Lancaster (Wars of the Roses)
- Henry Tudor established the Tudor dynasty
- Henry VIII. – 6 wives, he separated English Church from Rome and became the head of Church of England, Elisabeth I. – England world power – renaissance
- 1642 – 1649 – Civil War – Charles I. kontra Parliament Ţ Oliver Cromwell (puritan republic) – unpopular and in 1660 restored the monarchy (Charles II.)
- 1837 – 1901: Industrial Revolution – Queen Victoria – Britain dominated the world industry, commerce and military
- WW I. → WW II. economic crisis, decline in economy, social problems, ....
- Labour govern. – economy was nationalized, free health care and education
- since 1979 Conservatives privatised, reduced welfare

Government system:
- United Kingdom = G. B. + Norther Ireland = constitutional monarchy, present sovereign – Queen Elizabeth II., no political power
- UK is governed by the Cabinet ( 20 leading ministers + Prime Minister)
House of Lords:
1. hereditiary and life
2.
 
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