Great Britain and London - the capital of England and GB
Geography – situated on the British Isles – off northwest coast off Europe bordered by Atlantic ocean and from Europe separated by North. Sea & English Channel. Irish Sea & North Channel separate GB from Ireland. Climate – mild & rainy (Gulf Stream)
Population – 56 mill. people (dense population)
Indrustries – developed – iron & steel engineering, motor vehicles, aircraft, textil, plastic, cotton, wool, chemicals, electronics, shipbuilding, food products (incl. fishing)
Mineral resources – coal, natural gas (North Sea), drilling, (boring) towers
Agriculture – wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beet, milk, meat, sheep, breeding
· comprises of England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Isle of Man, Chanal Islands
· includes 4 nations: English, Welch, Scottish, Irish
· the largest cities: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchaster, Shefield, Bristol, Leeds, Edinburgh
· hightly industrialized, mainly in the north where the industrial revolution started in 18. – 19. century (steam engine – J. Watt) and a lot of discoveries.
- Manchaster – industrial, commercial centre, engineering, sport
- Newcastle – coal, iron, streel, shipbuilding
- Shefield – iron, streel, shipbuilding
- Birmingham – second laregest city, ligh engineering (bicycles, motorcycles, machine – tool industry)
· changes in the structure: banking insurance, commerce, finance, advertising
WALES - oldest son of the Engl. monarch is given the title “Prince of Wales”. Diana would be “The Princess of Wales”. Moor land, rainy climate, farms. Cardiff (capital) – mining, industrial, cultural, historical town, educational centre
SCOTLAND (north) + Orkneys, Shetland, Hebride - own tradition & way of life, independant, hills, lakes (lochs – Loch ness: where the mythical monster lives). Skotish have their special folclore in wearing kilts and having some special sports, Gasgow – shipbuilding, heavy steel manufactures, Edinburgh (capital) – ancient cultural city, Festival of Music & Drama” – world wide known, engin., printing, electronic industries, Aberdeen – historic royal town, North Sea coast, busy seaport, fishing, commerce
NORTHERN IRELAND (Ulster) – Belfast (capital) – university, shoping, educational,
commercial, entertainment and service center, important port, agriculture, farms, protestant / catholic – religious problems
The capital of England and Great Britain.
· 9 mil.
· city of tradition, history, monuments, theatres, parks, museums
· Thames (west → east) – Tower Bridge
· Three main areas of central London:
Tower: fortress Ţ royal palace Ţ prison
Tower - fortress → royal palace → prison
St. Paul´s Cath.
2. Westminster (Abbey) - Royal Palaces, Government offices, Palace of West = Houses of Parliament. When the parliament has it´s session a flag flies at Big Ben. Buckingham Palace is the residence of British royal family, ceremony of changing the Guard. British Prime minister at 10 Downing st.
3. West End – shops & entertainment, theares, night clubs, cinemas,
China Town (restaurants), Piccadily, Bond st., Reqent´s st., Carnaby st.
4. East End – used to be a slum, Cocney dialect, rebuilt after II. WW. Trafalgar Square – largest square ® statue of adm. Nelson, north – National Gallery
Other – National Prtrait Gallery, Tate G., Victoria & Albert Museum, British Museum, Madam Tussand´s Museum (waksworks)
Parks – St. Jame´s Park, Buckingham Pal. Gardens, Hyde Park, Speaker´s Corner, Regent´s Park, Kensington Garden
- first inhabitants, Celts, came from North Europe before 6th century B. C.
- the Roman occupation started in 1st century AD, (they built towns, roads, centralized administration)
- in 5th century germanic tribes – Angles, Saxons, Jutes (Romans home, Celts in the mountains)
- in 1066 Normans - William the Conqueror → King of England – hegemony of Normans
- in 1215 – Magna Carta – Supremacy of Law over the king – foundation of parlamentary governoment
- 1337 – 1453 – Hundred Years War (England vs. France) followed by wars of Yorks and Lancaster (Wars of the Roses)
- Henry Tudor established the Tudor dynasty
- Henry VIII. – 6 wives, he separated English Church from Rome and became the head of Church of England, Elisabeth I. – England world power – renaissance
- 1642 – 1649 – Civil War – Charles I. kontra Parliament Ţ Oliver Cromwell (puritan republic) – unpopular and in 1660 restored the monarchy (Charles II.)
- 1837 – 1901: Industrial Revolution – Queen Victoria – Britain dominated the world industry, commerce and military
- WW I. → WW II. economic crisis, decline in economy, social problems, ....
- Labour govern. – economy was nationalized, free health care and education
- since 1979 Conservatives privatised, reduced welfare
- United Kingdom = G. B. + Norther Ireland = constitutional monarchy, present sovereign – Queen Elizabeth II., no political power
- UK is governed by the Cabinet ( 20 leading ministers + Prime Minister)
House of Lords:
1. hereditiary and life
the supreme legislative body is Parliament
House of Commons – 5 years (elected)
- no constitution (common law, conventions), 2 parties – Conversative and Labour
Customs and traditions:
- Public hoidays = “Bank Holidays”: Good Friday, Easter Monday, Whit Monday, August Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, Boxing Day
24th December – Christmas Eve
25th December – Christmas Day
26th December – Boxing Day
Santa Claus, Christmas stocking
traditional food: Christmas cracker, roast filled turkey(duck), Christmas pudding
New Year´s Eve, New Year´s Day – not a holiday
14th February: St. Valentine´s Day.