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· the capital city of England
· the population is about 7 million
· the area is 4 000 sq. km
· it is situated on the river Thames in south – east England
· the largest city of England (the 9th largest city in the world)
· the oldest underground in the world
· a large port

· one of the largest ports and it has the oldest underground in the world
· three airports – Heathrow, Gatwick, Stanstead Heathrow is the largest airport in Europe
· red double – deckers (in town)
· black taxis

City in the centre of London:
a) The City of London
· the oldest part around St. Paul’s (there are many sights)
· EAST END – docks and factories
· WEST END – centre for shopping, theatres, cinemas, only rich people live here

The Tower
- was built by William the Conqueror in the 11th century
- crown jewels are kept there
- it was a royal palace, the a prison, a royal zoo, now it’s a museum
- the guards are called Beefeaters (Yeoman Warder) – they wear traditional Tudor uniforms

Tower Bridge
- one of the most famous symbols of London, that was built in 1894
- it can open in the middle to let large ships go through
- inside its towers there is a museum


Paul’s Cathedral
- one of the largest cathedrals in the world, which was built by Christopher Wren in the 17th century
- known for its Whispering Gallery – you can clearly hear what is whispered on the opposite side
- prince Charles and lady Diana were married there

The monument
- commemorates the Great Fire of London (1666)

b) The City of Westminster
· the centre of political and administrative life
· there are many banks, many outstanding sights

The Houses of Parliament
- are situated on the left bank of the Thames
- the houses was built in Gothic style

Big Ben
- tower of the House of Parliament
- a famous clock – tower with massive bell, made in 1858
- it’s named after a rather fat member of Parliament a minister sir Benjamin Hall
- tower is 97 metres high

Westminster Abbey
- was built in the 11th century
- many kings and queens were crowned here
- Poet’s Corner – writers, dramatists, scholars, poets are buried here (for example Isaac Newton)

Buckingham Palace
- is the residence of Queen’s family
- the changing of the guard is a popular event
- on the square in front of it there is the Queen Victoria Monument

Shopping centres of London
- Oxford Street, Regent Street, Bond Street
Harrods – big department
Another shops – WH Smith, Marks and Spencer
No. 10, Downing Street
- is the Prime Minister’s residence – Tony Blair

- government offices are situated in this street

Hyde Park
- one of the best – know London parks – there is Speaker’s Corner
- a large green area, you can come and relax, have picnic, some people go fishing in the Serpentine (lake) or boating as well. Lots of people go for long walks and jogging there on Sundays
- next parks: Regent’s park (contains London’s ZOO – 6 000 animals),
Kensington Park, Battersea park, St. James’s park (is the oldest one),
Kensington Gardens

Museums and galleries:
The National Gallery
- is situated in Trafalgar square
- paintings by great European artists + British paintings and sculptures

The British Museum
- the biggest collection of all kinds of
animals, minerals, rocks

Theatres and music halls:
- there are about 100 theatres in London
The Royal Festival Hall
The Royal Albert Hall - the main concert hall
The Queen Elizabeth Hall

The National Theatre, The Old Vic, The Royal Shakespeare Company

Piccadilly Circus -most famous square in London
Trafalgar Square
- there are Nelson’s Column, 2 fountains, pigeons, meetings and demonstrations

Madame Tussaud´s Museum
- wax figures, famous tourist attraction, about 4 000 figures,

- the greatest tennis championship in the world is held there
- international football matches.

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