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Štvrtok, 1. decembra 2022
Graham Swift Postmodernism in Graham Swift's
Dátum pridania: 31.03.2002 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: Diva
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 3 305
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 9.7
Priemerná známka: 2.98 Rýchle čítanie: 16m 10s
Pomalé čítanie: 24m 15s


Reflector and stream of consciousness technique is most evident in chapters employing Amy and Vince when both of them relate current situation with memories in the past that affected it or are associated with the current situation. Both characters’ narration – Amy’s and Vince’s – also exposes an emotional value for both of them have harsh feeling towards Jack which is evident from their narration. Amy’s narration especially creates a mess in reader’s head because her speech is very chaotic, uneven and heterogeneous and full of scorning, blaming and chiding:
“ But it wasn’t the Pier, he even got that wrong. It was the Jetty. He ought to have remembered: the Pier and the Jetty, two different things, even if the Jetty looked more like a pier, and the Pier was only a harbour wall. Except there isn’t no Jetty now, all swept away in a storm, years ago, and good riddance, T say, and amen. So maybe it wasn’t his mistake, maybe it was his alternative arrangement. If he had to be chucked, if it was a case of chucking, if he had to be taken to the end of somewhere and chucked, but count me out, Jack, I won’t be doing any chucking, then it had to be the Pier. Though it should have been the Jetty.”
/Last Orders, p. 19-20/

Another interesting and a very post-modern feature of the frame of narration is its sequencing. The author intentionally leaves one chapter open and then couple of chapters later in the text he continues carrying on the interrupted idea exactly where it has ceased before without any introductory paragraph. This forces the reader to absorb the novel very attentively and to scan the pages in order to draw links and connection among particular chapters.
Swift sagely employs different registers in this novel to illustrate different backgrounds of the protagonists. He uses motoring, butchery, mortuary, betting registers.
“ It’s a 380 S-Class, that’s what it is. V8, automatic. It’s six years old but it could do a hundred and thirty without a wobble...Custom paintwork, all-leather upholstery...It’s got white-walled tyres. It needs some air in the front near-side.”
/Last Orders, p. 23/
Swift also artistically inserts lyrics of popular song within the text. These songs include Roy Orbison’s, Chuck Berry’s, and John Lennon’s hits.
“ We’d hit the road and head out through the suburbs, like we’d robbed a bank and were on the run. Just runnin’ scared! Du-du-du-dum! “

/Last Orders, p. 105/

Creation of symbols in Last Orders is a remarkable feature of postmodernism as well. There is a number of symbols in the novel, however, I will concentrate on the most significant ones.
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