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Nedeľa, 18. apríla 2021
Military Aviation in the Modern World
Dátum pridania: 30.11.2002 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: mondeo
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 142
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 3.9
Priemerná známka: 3.00 Rýchle čítanie: 6m 30s
Pomalé čítanie: 9m 45s
 
Military Aviation in the Modern World

The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as rival superpowers after 1945. American post-war strategy required a fleet of bombers capable of delivering nuclear weapons anywhere in the world. The B-29 and B-50 bombers were replaced by Consolidated's ten-engine (six-piston, four-jet) B-36 Peacemaker. The Boeing B-47, which used a revolutionary swept-wing design, was the first successful US strategic jet bomber. The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress became one of the most remarkable military aeroplanes of all time. First flown in 1952, it remained in service more than 40 years later. After the detonation of Britain's first nuclear weapon in 1952, the RAF, too, needed intercontinental bombers. It got them in the swept-back shape of the V-bombers: the Victor, Valiant, and Vulcan. The bat-like delta wing of the Vulcan gave it the most distinctive shape, and it was the most successful aircraft, remaining in front-line service as a bomber for 37 years.

The jet revolution also produced some remarkable fighter and attack aircraft. The RAF in the 1950s flew ageing Meteors, and newer Supermarine Swifts, Gloster Javelins, and the Hawker Hunters. The Hunter's elegant curves are still to be seen on air force bases in South America and the Far East. In Korea, the North American F-86 Sabre was involved in dogfights with the ugly but effective Soviet-built MiG-15.

A new generation of supersonic fighter aircraft appeared after 1953. The North American F-100 Super Sabre; the Convair F-102 Delta Dagger; the English Electric Lightning; and the USSR's twin-engine MiG-19 were typical of the era. Russian-built MiGs in their hundreds were supplied to other Communist states. Their neighbours sought out Western aircraft to defend themselves. Few military aircraft of the 1960s were as commercially successful as the French-built Dassault-Mirage III, which has served with 15 of the world's air forces.

VTOL

In the 1960s there was the appearance of two more advanced aircraft technologies, but neither had the impact that might have been expected. The Hawker Harrier was the world's first vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) jet fighter. Its powerful Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine blasts air through four swivelling nozzles: pointed downward for take-off, they rotate backward as the aircraft accelerates into wing-borne flight.
 
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