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The Soviet Union After World War I
Dátum pridania: 30.11.2002 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: mondeo
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 939
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 3.4
Priemerná známka: 3.00 Rýchle čítanie: 5m 40s
Pomalé čítanie: 8m 30s
The Soviet Union After World War I

Chronologically, Soviet history began on November 7, 1917, when the Russian Revolution culminated in the assumption of state power by the Congress of Soviets, led by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. After proclaiming itself the repository of governmental authority, the congress immediately issued decrees calling for the withdrawal of Russia from World War I, for the nationalization of all land, and for the formation of a Council of People's Commissars to act as the executive branch of government. On November 15, 1917, the Soviets granted the rights of equality and self-determination to all the numerous national groups inhabiting the territory of the former Russian Empire. The first nation to take advantage of this opportunity was Finland, where a national government was established, and its independence from Soviet rule was recognized. In another early decree, the Soviet government proclaimed the separation of church and state: although granting religious freedom to the individual, the state itself opposed organized religion. The fundamental policies contained in these and other decrees were incorporated into the first Soviet constitution, adopted in July 1918.

Peace Treaty

Peace negotiations with Germany were initiated in December 1917. The peace terms presented by the Germans in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (now Brest) proved unacceptable, and negotiations were broken off in February 1918. A new German offensive, however, persuaded the Soviet leaders to reopen the talks, and early in March the treaty was concluded. By its terms the separation of the Ukraine, Poland, and the Baltic states from the Soviet Union was recognized, and the Soviet government was compelled to pay heavy indemnities to Germany. Lenin considered the treaty essential to the Soviet cause, despite its severity, because it gave the government time to consolidate its power; in addition, the Bolshevik leader believed proletarian revolutions were imminent in other European countries. Although such revolts did break out later in several countries, notably in Germany and Hungary, the uprisings there were unsuccessful, and the Soviet government remained the only government proclaiming the establishment of socialism as its goal.

The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk led to a schism within the Soviet government.
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