George Washington biography
Virginia, it is a famous country of planters. This state has own wealth. The thick forests, hills, and flowing streams, Washington's: "This infant, woody country." Many immigrants allured this beauty of the nature. Most families are self-sufficient. The slaves were aided with their work: made own clothes, built their own houses, stables and barns. The work of Virginias' farmers is included in tobacco, wheat, and corn. During the British influence were these products supplied. The plantations had beautiful gardens filled with flowers and vegetables.
Virginian, George Washington was born in Westmoreland County on February. 22, 1732. He was the eldest son from the five children (Elizabeth, Samuel, John, and Charles). His roots are in England. His grandfather moved to Virginia in 1657. Until his three years, he lived on the Potomac River in the small house, and later his family moved further up the Potomac River to the family tract-Little Hunting Creek, these days called Mount Vernon which was many times rebuilt. George's half-brother Lawrence became his idol, when he came from England educated. George didn't get chance to be educated like his brother. He was only one of the nation's first presidents who didn't go to the college. His interests were physical. He was interested in expeditions assigned to map the frontier lands. The 16 years old learned enough practice of this profession and also skills in mathematics. He became the surveyor of Virginia's Culpeper County at the age of 18. George entered business life when he was 20.
The sad circumstance occurred, when his brother, Lawrence, died of tuberculosis at his Mount Vernon home in July 1752, 36 years old. He lost his real friend, teacher and also brother. George Washington inherited this mansion in his early age, 20 years old. George was a young man when America wanted to be independent state. For many years had France and Britain battles about American lands and battles were never-ending. George Washington has received an appointment in the Virginia militia. He volunteered to go through snowy; trackless forests populated by Indians-dangerous, hazards for 21 years old young man. He delivered British message to the commander of Fort Le Boeuf, a French outpost in the Ohio Valley.
During the competition between Ohio Valley erupted to French and Indian War (in April, 1753-63).
In 1775, 25 years old Washington was appointed for commander in chief of the Virginia militia with responsibility for defending a border of enemy. Nevertheless the war was not over, George decided to go home. He returned to Mount Vernon. As an old friend of the wealthy family Fairfax at Belvoir, he was very good friend with their bride, Sally Fairfax. Sally was 18 years old, attractive, well educated and charming young woman, but married to his friend and neighbor, George Fairfax. She was teaching him to dance, coaching theatricals, and helping to polish manners. They became very close, and George Fairfax found the love letters, which were writing to each other. They broke up, but he never forgot on her. On January 6, 1759, George Washington and Martha Custis were married at the Custis plantation. Martha was a widow with two children. Her first husband left her two mansions, and wealth. George was never in love with her, but he was happy with her.
After nice years, George returned to the years of problems in state. The French and Indian War ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. But the war ended with British national debt. Taxes in Britain were very high, and they were not satisfied with money what America paid to them. The British Parliament passed in 1765 Stamp Act. It required for Americans to buy tax stamps for most printed matter. This act was named under: "Taxation without representation." With riot, British government repealed the Stamp Act in early 1766 and in 1767 passed the Townshend Acts. These acts placed the taxes for paper, glass, paint, ink and tea at the ports. These acts were called: "British tyranny." The countries tried to be saved to hold together. In the other side they would be forced to live under British rules forever. This revolt rose with Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. The Americans boarded three British merchant ships, and dumped their cargo of tea into the water at Boston's harbor. This mission was unfortunately successful. The countries divided the colonies, passed a set of new laws and became some of them self-governing.
After this revolt, Britain couldn't stop to revolt. Their hostility was growing more. George was appointed for commander in chief of the Continental Army in June 1775. He needed to set up strong army and to ensure the food, medicine, tents, and guns. The attack was very intensive from British side, which stroke on June 17, 1775. The attack was on Bunker's Hill with burning of Charlestown. The British suffered tremendous casualties.
The years, when The America had to confront the British domination, The America had their own problems. With constantly paying taxes, farmers were declined to depth. The high taxes and bad conditions were never-ending. The group of farmers rebelled in 1786. Their head was Captain Daniel Shays, former Continental Army. This revolt became known as Shays' Rebellion. The government lacked the power of the control. The government was forcible to declare fair and right for everybody.
George Washington was not only prosperous commander, but also a delegate. His career as a delegate began with session the First Continental Congress of 1774 in Philadelphia. Virginia chose seven men, and one of them was George Washington. Every one of the delegates was impressed, when George spoke with words as a gifted military leader. The Congress wrote an agreement where refused to import British goods. The Second Continental Congress, also in Philadelphia, raised an army to defend colonies against British power. Thomas Paine, immigrant from England created sensation in the revolutionary America of 1776. Common Sense-pamphlet, which was circulated among the colonists, increased this sensation in January 1776. It attacked British monarchy, insisting that there was 'something very absurd in supposing a continent can be perpetually governed by an island'. He also wanted immediate independence from Britain. Washington called Paine's arguments:"Sound doctrine and unanswerable reasoning."
The revolution and rebellion was too strong. Thomas Paine declared bold phrase: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, among certain inalienable Rights are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of the Happiness!" These words and rebellion turned to the war for independence. On July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was declared in Independence Hall, in Philadelphia. George arrived in Philadelphia on May 13, 1787. After relax at the Mount Vernon spending with his wife and children, he came to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. 55 delegates opened this convention. Washington was the oldest person there; their average was 42. There were also included Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Important thinkers-James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Dickinson, Gouverneur Morris who studied law, served in colonial or state legislatures, or members of Congress were there. The delegates disagreed about many things such as Articles of Confederation (the first constitution).
This times the people celebrated anniversary (more than decade) of Declaration of Independence with The Liberty Bell atop Philadelphia's Independence Hall. The delegates set up the first draft for a new Constitution. It gave the federal government the power to tax, regulate trade, and issue money. An Electoral College chosen by the people will elect president of the United States for a four-year term. The legislature would be consisting of two houses: a Senate (two members from each state), a House of Representatives (the number of members would depend on the each state's population). A Supreme Court would be there with members appointed for life by the president. A system checks and balances would be divided among three branches: executive (the president), the legislative (the two houses of Congress), and the judicial (the Supreme Court). On September 17, 1787 framers wrote the Constitution. But it still had to be ratified, or approved by at least 9 of the 13 states. These ratification debates in the states were long and bitter. Opponents of the Constitution called 'Antifederalists' argued that Philadelphia convention had exceeded its authority, the document will lack a Bill of Rights (such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion, personal liberties). The 'Federalists' who were for ratification of the constitution were promising to support a series of amendments and provide the Bill of Rights. In June 1788 New Hampshire ratified the Constitution. During the ratification, George Washington became a first president of the U.S.A. on April 30, 1789 in New York City. The historic ceremony at Federal Hall begins with the oath where Robert Livingston, chancellor (highest judicial officer) of the state of New York is asking Washington: "Do you solemnly swear, that you will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States and will, to the best of your ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States?" He answers:"I do solemnly swear, so help me God." He kisses a Bible placed before him. "George Washington is the president of the United States!" people cheer and shout. John Adams is first vice-president of the U.S.A. Washington was a famous man, and the citizens liked him. He was a good commander, soldier, and delegate, but also president. Meanwhile his government the people were satisfied, he treated fair everybody. He agreed to be placed in nomination for a second term. Electoral College voted in February 1793, and on February 13, 1793 Washington was reelected. Him and John Adams (vice-president) took the office again.
The third election in 1796 was without George Washington. He refused to participate, he knew, he would be easily reelected, again. He didn't have the intention of proving it. The presidential election took a place on March 4, 1797. John Adams became a president and Thomas Jefferson vice-president. Adams wrote: "A great common voice went through the throng, as if they sobbed to see their hero go from their sight forever." George thought:"We will see who will be happier." But he knew absolutely that he is going home. George was 65 years old when he left the presidency. He retired to Mount Vernon and he returned to his plantation. He was happy with his old friends, family. He was finally home. He took his last ride on horseback in December 1799. He didn't suppose the break of the weather. An icy rainstorm hit him during his ride. The next day he had a sore throat and it got worse. The infection was spreading very quickly. He knew, he was close to death. His last will was to be buried not less than three days after his death.
On December 14, 1799 George Washington was buried on the Mount Vernon grounds. The people mourned. In the nation's capital, 10000 people watched ceremony through the streets. When 67years old Washington died, Martha Washington said: "All is over now..." She died three years later and she was buried next to her husband.
George Washington was very famous person and everybody liked him. He proved in his life a lot of great things. The first American president who will be never forgotten. This biography gave me a lot of positive concerns what he did. Many people would like to be like him. His life was full of new experience, skills and very important decisions. He had to be prepared for everything and hold everything fair and straight. The tourists are coming to see the solemn monuments. The home of Washington-Mount Vernon belongs to the most famous monument in Washington D.C. He is also appeared in legends, stories, and memorable actions. His own works are published in various editions. During his domination he declared a lot of statements which are used and irredeemable. He was, he is and he will be idol of politicians forever...