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Utorok, 14. júla 2020
President Chester A. Arthur Aims to Turn Indians into U.S. Citizens, 1881
Dátum pridania: 08.03.2003 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: lehu
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 225
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 4
Priemerná známka: 2.99 Rýchle čítanie: 6m 40s
Pomalé čítanie: 10m 0s

First, he suggests legislative adjustments leading to the application of state laws in the Indian reservations (with the exception of the Five Civilized Tribes in today’s Oklahoma). This jurisdiction will lead, according to Arthur, to the protection of the Indian by the law, “valuable to him in his progress toward civilization” (line 38). Secondly, and most importantly, the author urges for a general law “permitting the allotment in severalty .. of a reasonable quantity of land”. This private property estate would help them in their “present welfare an their permanent advancement”. Writer’s intention is to break up Indians’ tribal and nomadic communities, accused for the under-development of their civilization. Thirdly, there shall be a certain amount of money assigned for the support of Indian schools. This idea was later developed (some can say also misused) by the initiative to obtain this money from the sale of the redundant Indian land. Arthur’s suggestions, which voiced the general sentiments, led to the Indian General Allotment, also known as the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This law really rationed the land, confirming 160 acres to each individual household and half that to orphans and single adults. The rest, unfortunately, was quickly purchased by speculators and railroad companies. The title of this paper is: “President Chester A. Arthur Aims to Turn Indians into U.S. Citizens”. We may assume that this in a few years really happened, however, all Indians were made citizens only in 1924. Still today, despite Arthur's original ideas, Indian tribes are political entities, which generally are outside the jurisdiction of the individual states in which they live. Another inconsistency can be found in the lines 54-56, where the author expresses his rather subjective will of the reality and the outcome of his proposed changes. I quite doubt the “well-attested reports” of Indians’ increasing interest in husbandry (line 54). In reality, his “gratifying results at once” were in fact not achieved. What actually happened was, as he continues in this paragraph, the dissolution of the tribal bound with all its’ negative consequences. Although it is quite difficult to say whom this text is addressed to, the interest of the author is definitely to change the policy of dealing with the Indian problem. From this view it is a public text.
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Zdroje: President Chester A. Arthur Aims to Turn Indians into U.S. Citizens, 1881
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