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OV - Zhrnutie učiva (I. polrok) základných škôl (od štátna moc deliteľná tromi po Sme "Euroobčania")
Development of Trust in Post-Communist Societies
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|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||12.4|
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Compared to Western European countries rank Eastern European much lower, but least corrupted post-communist societies rank similarly to the most corrupted states of the western part of the continent, producing thus not two distinct factions (Eastern and Western Europe), but a common continuum of European corruption perceptions.
Corruption was widespread under the communist command economy, when artificial price ceilings created shortages and bribes were an effective way to get hold of variety of goods that could not be found in state-run stores. Besides that, bribes were often needed to access formally free state services like health care, education or housing repairs.
The great variety of kinds of corruption in transforming countries persists. This malady comprises of bribes in health care and education, incentive payments for bureaucrats, buying judicial decisions, payments to obtain major contracts, concessions and privatizing firms, buying political influence and buying votes.
Fighting Corruption, Increasing Trust
Fighting corruption and thus increasing the trust in the system has been an attempt of every responsible government since 1989. There are several options that have been used: governments try reducing the opportunities for corruption, increasing the transparency of every transaction, improving the corruption detection and strengthening the punishment for this type of crime.
Higher salaries for judges, police and their staff decrease the incentive to accept a pay off. Campaign finance legislation reduces the pressures that parties put on media and indirectly increases trust in them. Regular disclosure of politicians’ and their families’ property (and its’ origin) has been introduced. Laws ensuring the public access to information were set up. Many countries have established Ombudsmen to hear complaints of all kinds .
Avoiding conflict of interests is another strategy. Because many politicians in new democracies have interests also in private companies, citizens tend to view them as corrupt. In Ukraine 150 businessmen and bankers were elected to the Parliament in 1998 .
Reducing the members’ of parliaments and other officials’ immunity before the law has been discussed for years. However, it is very implausible for an organ with a certain amount of power to abandon it voluntarily.
The role of free media is a very important, but at the same time rather controversial one as well. On the one hand, media reveal scandals and, therefore, increase the perception of misbehavior that might lead to decrease of trust (therefore “Corruption Perceptions Index”). But on the other hand, by investigative journalism, increasing transparency in the system, they set certain standards, they make it much more difficult for the possible corruptors and corruptees.
Continuing distrust in Eastern Europe is a pervasive legacy of the communist rule. The increasing diversity in the quality and extent of democratization in these countries reflects also the variance in the level of trust.