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OV - Zhrnutie učiva (I. polrok) základných škôl (od štátna moc deliteľná tromi po Sme "Euroobčania")
Romanians an their monastic fife
|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||1 646|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||5.6|
|Priemerná známka:||2.95||Rýchle čítanie:||9m 20s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||14m 0s|
They are stong in Transylvania, weaker in Moldavia, in forms absordeb by local Byzantine tradition, and even less discernible in Wallachia where since the 14th century arhitecture was based on the local interpretation of the Byzantine model. Significant for the Transylvanian Gothic style, among the monuments preserved to this day, in spite of all alterations, would be the Black Church in Brasov (14th-15th c.) in religious architecture, the Bran Castle in Brasov County (14th c.) and the Hunyades Castle in Hunedoara (15th c.) in lay architecture. Specific for Transylvania during those centuries, would be also the expansion and fortification of towns, their urban growth based on the principles of functionality (a central market place with a church, narrow streets with sides linked here and there by archways), the cities of Sighisoara, Sibiu and Brasov being eloquent proofs thereof. Most original and endowed with stylistic unity are the churches erected in Moldavia under the rule of Stephen the Great (1457-1504), among which the monumental church of the Neamt Monastery turned, for almost a century, into a paragon of Moldavian religious abodes, characterized by slender silhouettes, harmonious facades, the picturesque roofs of folk inspiration. This synthesis was carried on durind the next century, during the rule of Stephen the Great's son, Petru Rares (1527-1538; 1541-1546), the main innovation being the porch and the outwall painting (the churches of Voronet, Sucevita, Moldovita monasteries). The 17th century, the zenith the pre-modern Romanian civilization, brought about the development of lay constructions (elegant boyard mansions or sumptuous princely palaces in the principalities oustside the Carpathin arc, Renaissance-style lordly castles in Transylvania), as well as the expansion of great monasteries, which, endowed with schools, art workshops, printing presses, became genuine cultural centres. To this period belongs the church of the Trei Ierarhi Monastery in Iasi, raised in 1635-1639, a monument unique on account of its lavish decoration with carved geometric motifs, coloured in lapis lazuli and golden foil, all over the facades. The architectural style developed in Wallachia, especially under the reigns of Matei Basarab and Constantin Brâncoveanu, is of a remarkable stylistic unity. The Brancovan style is characterized by integration of Baroque and Oriental features into the local tradition-splendid examples are the Hurezi Monastery in Oltenia (Wallachia Minor) or the princely palace of Mogosoaia -, by a luxuriant decorativeness (stone carvings, stucco work and paintings).