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A Political History of UN Security Council Resolution 1441
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|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||10.4|
|Priemerná známka:||2.98||Rýchle čítanie:||17m 20s|
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After months of deadlock, agreement was reached among the permanent members of the Security Council in November 2001 to introduce a revised system of “smart” sanctions. This was approved on 13 May 2002 under Resolution 1409, restricting potentially dangerous goods to flow into the country , although there was little agreement on the inclusion of certain “dual-use” items.
Another tactic was intensified diplomatic pressure, used more or less successfully during August and early September. These diplomatic challenges, though, were more formidable than those in Afghanistan or the Gulf War. United States were pre-empting a threat that seemed to worry Washington far more than Iraq’s own Arab neighbors. At that time, most of the international community believed that the risks involved in overthrowing Saddam Hussein far outweighed the potential advantages. Therefore, United States could not act alone, they had to press on and convince others. This was achieved by mustering support for a robust international response to Iraq’s non-compliance and pressure to engage with the United Nations accompanied by speculations over possible planning for military action.
Subsequent talks between Kofi Annan and Iraqi representatives over the re-admission of UN weapons inspectors ended in Vienna (5 July 2002) by complete breakdown as Baghdad sought assurances that economic sanctions will be lifted.
This mid-2002 Iraq’s refusal to cooperate with the UN and IAEA inspectors led the US and British governments to conclude that the diplomatic efforts come close to exhaustion.
On 12 September 2002, US president Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations with a challenge to respond to Iraq’s noncompliance, asking:
“Are Security Council resolutions to be honored and enforced, or cast aside without consequence? Will the United Nations serve the purpose of its founding or will it be irrelevant?”
President’s speech received a positive reaction from the entire international community, mainly because he reassured that the Washington did not intend to sideline the United Nations. Therefore, American and British officials started working on a new resolution that would not only reiterate the Security Council’s demands but also set a deadline and tight timetable for compliance.
On the same day, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan declared that “the leadership of Iraq continues to defy mandatory resolutions adopted by the Security Council under Chapter VII of the Charter”. He urged Iraq to comply with its obligations, because “if Iraq’s defiance continues, the Security Council must face its responsibilities”.