1. ročné obdobia
The spring begins on the 21st March. The weather is clear and sunny but the temperature almost never arise to more then twenty degrees.Nature begins to awake from long winter sleep, nights get shorter and days get longer. Woods and first flowers appear: snowdrops, dandelions, daffodils, forget-menots, violets and many more. ..
June 21st is the date when summer begins. Schoolchildren have two months holidays and lot of people set on journeys and take holidays. The temperature rises to 25 degrees and more, sky is clear and bright, there is a lot of sunshine, no wind blows and sometimes we suffer from a heat, which means the weather is sultry , hot and dry. Summer rains often come in the form of a storm. Then there is a crash of thunder and a flash of lighting and a heavy downpour. Occasionally it starts hailing or there is a cloudburst, but when the storm dies down, a rainbow may appear in the sky.
The fall is usually colder then summer with foggy mornings.It starts on the 23rd September. We can still enjoy a few fine days of Indian summer. Fall used to be the most rainy season and the nature is preparing for the winter, so it´s the time of gathering fruit like apples and pears. The leaves of maples, beeches, birches, oaks and ashes are changing to red, yellow, orange or brown.
After fall usually comes winter, the coldest season of the year. Evething is covered by snow and ice, animals and plants are hibernating, Children enjoy throwing snowballs, sledging, sliding and skating on frozen lakes. The temperature sometimes drops to 20 °C below zero. The hands get numb and stiff, fingers tingle with cold and we sometimes suffer from frostbite. The roads become icy and slipper, which make driving hazardous.
2. príroda okolo nás – fauna (zvieratá žijúce voľne, v ZOO, domáce) a flóra
Forest – bear, wild boar, roes, deers, badgers, martens, fox/vixen, squirrels, woodpecker, eagle, owls, beavers, wolves
Air – butterflies, flies, bees, birds – eagles, crows, ravens, magpies, geese,pigeons
Pouds, lakes – fish (carp, pike, trout,), frogs, snakes, geese, swans, otters, beavers, ducks
Meadows – hare, pheasant, partridge, mouses, snakes, lizards, grasshoppers, ents, crickets, hedgehog
Under ground – worms, moles, snails, earthworms,
Domestic animals - cats, dogs, horses, parrots, budgies, fishes, reptiles, hamsters, ferrets
Utility (agricultural) animals – cows, bulls, goats, sheep, oxen, chicken, hares, horses
ZOO – cats (cheetah, lions, tigers), monkeys (chimpanzee, baboons), rhinos, hippos, giraffes, antilopes, exotic animals, especially exotic reptiles, endangered animals – marmots, chamois, bears, wolves, elephants, camels, ....
-some people claim zoos should be abolished because animals are kept in cages and live in conditions that are very different from their natural habitat, others think that zoos are good idea, especially children love it, because its great entertaiment for them and they can learn a lot in there. I think that animals in ZOOs have often very good care, but they would be maybe more happier if they could be free, especially those who werent born in ZOO. I think that ZOOs and different Safari parks and reservation are also very good and usefull for endangered animals, to save some nearly extinct species.
3. znečistenie, prírodné katastrofy
Nature can sometimes shows us her worse sides in form of natural disasters. It could be earthquake, usually in Japan and west side of North America sometimes followed with tidal waves also known as tsunami. Then is it vulcanic eruptions, droughts in Africa, hurricanes or floods everywhere after long lasting rains. We can predict some of the natural disasters or stop them by protection of environment. If we will stop deforestation and desertation, polluting air, water and groung by exhaust fumes and toxic chemicals from our plants, destroyance of ozone layer that cause greenhouse effect and destruction of ecosystem at all, maybe we could stop natural disasters and nature will completly recover.
Pollution is a side product of modern human life. Actual problems are ozone gap, greenhouse effect, acid rains and waste. Ozone layer is a layer around the Earth which protects Earth from ultraviolett light. Freon gases,used in refrigerators and sprays, has got influence on ozone layer and create ozone gap.UV rays can cause skin cancer and eye problems.
The greenhouse effect – greenhouses are used grow plant, especially in winter, by trapping a heat from sun. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere – carbon dioxide, nitrous and methane behave same like greenhouse glass pannels - they trap the energy from the sun and it cause our world to heat up. This is reason why snow doesn’t fall in winter and it only rains and temperature is higher than before.
Arising of the level of oceans is caused by melting glaciers. Scientists suppose that areas on coast will be flooded in future. Acid rains are dangerous for all forests, plants and buildings too. Acid gases (sulfur dioxide) from factories and exhaust fumes let out and mix with rain clouds. Water and acid gas create acid, which falls down as a rain. Acid damages leaves of trees in forests. Also many historical sculptures were damaged by acid rains and they had to be replaced by copies.
Other problem is trash. It´s created everyday and there are many ways how we can get rid of it. We can burn it, put on dump, compost or recycle it. Putting on dump is the cheapest way how to get rid of it, but it takes too much place, and burning create harmful gases. By composting we create manure and it can be used in gardens. By recycling we can give one more chance to use some prodcut again.
4. ochrana životného prostredia
We can protect our nature and enviroment by many ways, for example by recycling, using alternative energy, by enviromental organisations, reservations and mainly by enviromental education. Because firstly we have to bring up new generation of young people who will realize that we need to protet our world because it will be damaged soon. .
People should try to use alternative sources of energy. Most of the energy we use today comes from coal, oil and gas. But these will not last for ever, and burning them is slowly harming the atmosphere. Solar power is a way of using the sun´s energy as heat or to make electricity. We can also use wind-power by building modern windmills that spin in the wind. There are several types of water-power. River water in mountains can be used to generate hydroelectric power, and we can also create electricity from sea water
Recycling is the processing of used objects and meterials so that they can be used again. About 60% rubbish from homes and factories contain materials that could be recycled. Recycling saves energy and also reduces damage to the countryside. Glass, paper and aluminium cans all be recycled very easily. Many towns have bottle banks and can banks where people can leave their empty bottles and cans for recycling. A lot of paper bags, writing paper, also newspaper and greetings cards are now produced on recycled paper.
Animal and plant protection
Environmental protection should also include animal and plant protection, because the balance of species of plants and animals has also been affected by human activities. Some animals are protected, others are bred in captivity for release in the wild so they have the best chance of survival. Trees are also protected and new ones are planted. The establishment of National Parks and natural reservations provide protection, and also provide opportunities for outdoor recreation. There are also ecological organizations such as Greenpeace, which organize campaigns and many activities to draw the attention of people to serious ecological problems.
5. vplyv životného prostredia na človeka
influence of air, water pollution on the people´s health
genetically modified organism, pesticids